By: Warren Gray

“I don’t think the people are going to believe this, this year,

next year, or a hundred years from now. This thing will be

challenged today, tomorrow, and forever.”

— Arlen Specter, lawyer for the Warren Commission, 1964.

This is certain to be a very controversial subject, so let’s begin with the official, U.S. government conclusion regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. No, not the infamous and highly flawed, Warren Commission Report of 1964, but the official findings of the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) on July 17, 1979, which formally overturned, invalidated, and replaced the bogus, Warren Commission findings. But, how many of us were ever told that? The news media did everything possible to bury that story.

The HSCA very clearly stated that, “The committee believes, on the basis of the evidence available to it, that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The committee is unable to identify the other gunman or the extent of the conspiracy…organized crime…individual members may have been involved…four shots were fired…three gunmen fired.” So, that’s our own government’s (U.S. House of Representatives) latest, official word on this subject. Let’s at least give them credit for finally telling a very small part of the truth.

That being the case, there is really no such thing as a “conspiracy theory” in the JFK assassination case, because the government has already admitted that conspiracy was a fact, not a theory, an opinion, or speculation. The only remaining questions are, who else was involved, and how deeply did it all run? More than 2,500 books have been written on this sensitive subject, but none of them have covered it in the clear and definitive detail that the American public would like to see.

This article will focus exclusively on the firearms aspect of the assassination, including the direct, physical evidence of shots fired, shell casings and bullets recovered, weapons recovered, ricochet marks on pavement, and the testimony of alleged participants, in a detailed effort to reconstruct what really happened on that fateful day in Dallas, Texas, 57 years ago. Fortunately, Dallas dressmaker Abraham Zapruder filmed the entire, gruesome assassination sequence from nearby with an 8mm Bell and Howell movie camera at 18.3 frames per second, in full color, and that film still exists.

Shot #1: Between Zapruder Frames Z152 and Z155, a shot misses and ricochets off the street behind the presidential limousine, causing sparks. Kennedy hears it and turns his head about 65 to 90 degrees to the right, directly toward the Grassy Knoll area ahead, by Frame Z160.

Shot #2: JFK is apparently hit in the throat at Frame Z189 from a frontal direction, and his hands move up to the front of his throat, as if he is choking. Emergency room doctors at Parkland Hospital, including Doctor Charles Crenshaw, later observe a clean, 3mm-to-5mm, puckered, entry wound. The president stiffens, he cannot talk, and can barely move, as if suddenly paralyzed, and his wife, Jackie, seated beside him to the left, said that there was “No blood or anything.” There was also no gunfire sound, and no rearward movement of his body consistent with a frontal, bullet impact, so this was extremely unusual. Doctor Crenshaw later wrote, “It was a bullet entry wound. There was no doubt in my mind.”

Shot #3: At Frame Z225, JFK is hit in the upper back from behind, and his body visibly lurches forward on the Zapruder film. Directly in front of him, Governor John Connally reacts to the impact behind him, and he flips his hat at Frames Z228-Z230. This was likely a defective round, or “dud” bullet, because it only penetrated the president’s back finger-deep, doing very little damage, and it was never recovered.

Shot #4: From the western end of the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) at Frame Z237, Governor Connally is hit in the back, near his right arm. His shoulder suddenly drops on film, and he turns to look behind him.

Shot #5: At Frame Z312, from the direction of the Dal-Tex Building directly behind him, JFK is hit in the upper back of the head at a low angle by a grazing shot that apparently does not penetrate his skull, causing his head to momentarily snap forward about two and half inches. The bullet continued straight ahead, tumbled 180 degrees, and badly dented the top of the inner windshield frame of the limousine base-first, preserving the bullet tip. The smashed fragments of this bullet were recovered inside the vehicle as Commission Exhibit 567, clearly showing a pointed nose, like a .30-06 bullet, and not a rounded nose, like a 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano bullet. Some later photos of CE 567 do not show the pointed tip, but it’s quite evident in the early photos.

Shot #6: From the Grassy Knoll at Frame Z313, a mere 1/18th of a second later, the president is hit in the right temple by a very-high-velocity shot, causing his head to snap violently toward the left rear, away from the Grassy Knoll, as his brain literally explodes in what is clearly the fatal shot. Sir Isaac Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction,” and the president’s head was flung roughly backward at the rate of 100 feet per second, or 68 miles per hour, in that split-second. Motorcycle policeman Bobby Hargis, riding behind the limousine to the left rear, is sprayed so hard with JFK’s blood and brain tissue that he thinks that he himself has been hit, and stops his motorcycle.

Shot #7: Later, FBI Agent Robert Barrett, policeman J.W. Foster, and Detective Edward “Buddy” Walthers together recover a fired, .45 ACP pistol bullet near a manhole cover on Dealey Plaza, right beside the motorcade route.

Shot #8: Another shot misses the limousine, hits a curb near the underpass ahead, and ricochets fragments onto the cheek of bystander James T. Tague.

Shot #9: Yet another shot gouges a four-inch-long mark in the sidewalk on Elm Street, from the western end of the TSBD. Five eyewitnesses saw this strike occur. That section of curb was hastily repaired by the FBI, who said that it could not have come from the alleged, Lee Harvey Oswald window at the eastern end of the TSBD.

Shot #10: One witness saw a bullet hole in the Stemmons Freeway sign directly beside the shooting zone. This sign was hastily removed afterward, and was never replaced. Richard Bothun Photo #4, in black and white, shows what could possibly be a bullet hole in the lower corner of the sign, nearest to the street.

Shot #11: Another shot cracked and penetrated the windshield of the limousine left of center, making a hole “large enough to put a pencil through it,” according to Dallas police Sergeant Stavis Ellis. A typical pencil measures .303-caliber in diameter.

Shot #12: Another shot struck the concrete casing around the south manhole cover on Elm Street, and the gouge aims directly toward the roof of the County Records Building nearby.

While all of this direct, physical and photographic evidence of potentially 12 shots fired is alarming enough, that’s certainly not the end of it. There are still the seven “specimens” to be accounted for:

The Barbee Specimen: This was a .30-caliber, M1 Carbine bullet found imbedded in a rooftop near the Stemmons Freeway in 1966, only a quarter-mile from the TSBD, and examined by the FBI in 1967. They showed little interest at the time, due to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, and closed this case.

The Haythorne Specimen: This was a .30-06, jacketed soft point bullet found on the roof of the Massey Building, eight blocks from the TSBD, in 1967, and examined by the HSCA in 1978, probably manufactured by Remington.

The Lester Specimen: This was a 52.7-grain, rear bullet fragment found in Dealey Plaza, just 500 yards from the TSBD, in 1974, and examined by the FBI in 1976-77. It was a four-groove, jacketed soft point or hollowpoint, possibly in 6.5mm, but definitely nota Carcano bullet, as Oswald was suspected to have fired. Amazingly, the FBI showed no interest whatsoever in this specimen.

The Dal-Tex Specimen: This was a rusted, shell casing found on the roof of the Dal-Tex Building at the assassination site in 1977, with crimped edges, suggesting either a handload or a sabot round.

The Walder Bullet: This was a separate bullet listed as “Submitted for testing” to the HSCA, but it does not appear in any of the evidence listings. It simply disappeared.

The Belmont Bullet: FBI administrator Alan Belmont reported to FBI Deputy Director Clyde Tolson on November 22, 1963 that, “a bullet has been found lodged behind the president’s ear.” But, there was no further mention of it afterward.

The Luster Cartridge: The Dallas Morning News reported on November 23, 1978, that Hal Luster had found a fully-intact, unfired, .45 ACP pistol cartridge in 1976 beside the concrete retaining wall on the Grassy Knoll.

This is mind-boggling evidence, considering that the Warren Commission wanted us to believe that Lee Harvey Oswald did all of this damage totally on his own, with a beat-up, World War Two-vintage, 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano rifle with a cheap, badly-misaligned, plastic scope that consistently hit 14 inches high and to the right at 25 yards during actual testing, a rusted-out action, and a faulty firing pin. The rifle was entirely too defective to be fired safely until it was reworked by an expert gunsmith, and even then, the FBI’s top marksmen could not possibly fire three shots in just 5.6 seconds, as the Warren Commission alleged that Oswald did.

Then, there was the obvious problem that the “Oswald Rifles” recovered by the Dallas Police, National Archives, and Warren Commission/FBI were actually three separate and distinct rifles, with different features on the butt, bolt, scope alignment, and forend. One had bottom sling swivels, another had side swivels, and the list goes on and on. At least two of them even had the same serial numbers. How on Earth does thathappen by sheer coincidence, and who can make that happen?! While the Warren Commission said that Oswald fired three shots that day, the FBI’s evidence list and photos from FBI Exhibit 10-12B both show only two fired shell casings and one unfired cartridge, so their own, FBI evidence directly contradicts the Warren Report!

But it gets worse from there, much, much worse: The Warren Commission’s alleged, pristine, “Magic Bullet” (Commission Exhibit 399) that supposedly passed through both Kennedy and Connally virtually undamaged, bore the distinctive marks of six lands and grooves. The problem here is that all Mannlicher-Carcano rifles had only four lands and grooves in their barrels.

Magically, however, (after all, it was the “Magic Bullet”), by the time this bullet was examined by the HSCA in 1978, it had mysteriously been replaced by an actual, 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano bullet bearing just four lands and grooves. Fortunately for posterity, photos and exacting measurements of both bullets still exist, so the swap is easily proven. The new bullet is also .125 inch shorter.

An official, FBI memorandum dated December 2, 1963, with the subject line, “JFK Assassination,” described, “6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition used in the assassination…Western Cartridge Corporation…manufactured four million rounds of this ammunition for the United States Marine Corps during 1954…ammunition which does not fit and cannot be fired in any of the USMC weapons.

“This gives rise to the obvious speculation that it is a contract for ammunition placed by the CIA with Western under a USMC contract for concealment purposes.” All of the 6.5mm ammo and cartridge casings in the JFK case came from this particular batch in 1954, and here was the FBI officially pointing a finger at the CIA, since the alleged, “Oswald” ammunition was supplied from this apparent, CIA batch.

Furthermore, during the HSCA investigations in 1977 to 1979, CIA officials testified that they had acquired a dozen 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano rifles (which they apparently never used, except perhaps on the JFK operation) and a further one million rounds of ammo for Agency use through the U.S. Marine Corps, confirming the FBI’s 1963 suspicions. This was a very interesting development, indeed, shedding more light on Lee Oswald’s’ probable, true identity.

So, if it wasn’t a Mannlicher-Carcano that killed JFK (or was even fired at him at all), what were the weapons involved, and how many shooters were there? Were there really as many as 12 shots fired, and why didn’t we hear them? And if Oswald wasn’t shooting, who was?

Actually, three rifles were found inside the TSBD: the alleged, “Oswald” Carcano, a 7.65mm Mauser recovered by Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig, and a British .303 Enfield rifle. Craig specifically said that, “Stamped right on the barrel of the rifle was ‘7.65 Mauser,’” with Police Officer Seymour Weitzman signing a statement that said, “This rifle was a 7.65 Mauser bolt-action.” Walter Cronkite of CBS News reported on “the German-built Mauser with the sniper scope that was used to kill President Kennedy,” and a CIA report dated November 25, 1963 bluntly stated, “It was a Mauser.”

But then, newsman Tom Whelan of WBAP-TV reported that, “Police have recovered a British .303 rifle with a telescopic sight…found on the sixth floor…Texas School (Book) Depository…found three empty .303 cartridge cases.”

At that time, there was a very close, working relationship between the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and organized crime, because the CIA had utilized organized crime figures to help train Cuban exiles for the failed, Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961, and the CIA blamed Kennedy, because he withdrew air support for the invasion at the last possible moment, leaving the CIA-trained rebels floundering on the Cuban beaches, where they were easily overwhelmed and captured. These strange and shady alliances continued through 1963, resulting in a sordid cast of characters with ties to both organizations.

Sam Giancana, the head of organized crime in Chicago, and really, for the whole nation then, apparently dispatched noted hitman Marshall J. “Shoes” Caifano and mobster Richard Cain (half-brother of actor Michael Cain) from Chicago to participate in the joint assassination effort, according to various underworld sources, and these were likely the two men with the Mauser and the Enfield in the TSBD.

There were three more men advising and assisting them, including a senior, CIA officer from Miami, who later smugly and chillingly bragged to his friends that, “I was in Dallas when we got the son of a b***h (JFK), and I was in Los Angeles when we got the little bas***d” (Bobby Kennedy, in 1968),” but naming them all at this point would require lengthy, detailed explanations well beyond the limited scope of this article.

This brings us to the fascinating story of James Earl Files (also known as Jimmy Sutton), who is still alive, and has confessed several times to being the Grassy Knoll shooter who fired the fatal shot at JFK. The really interesting thing about Files is that he knew things that no one else knew, things that have since been corroborated by other sources, and despite numerous attempts to discredit him (why?), no one has everproven any part of his story to be wrong.
He has been entirely consistent with the details, never claiming to know more about the assassination than he was told by his late, underworld boss.

In 1963, James Files was a young (age 21), organized-crime hitman, working as a driver for Chicago mafia figure Charles “Chuckie” (“The Typewriter”) Nicoletti. Files said that he and Nicoletti were sent to Dallas in November to participate in the JFK assassination on behalf of the Chicago mafia, and that Nicoletti was armed with a “semi-automatic, Marlin, .30-06 rifle.” His detractors angrily point out that Marlin never made a .30-06 rifle, or a semi-automatic rifle, for that matter, but they are completely wrong.

From 1937 to 1938, Marlin produced the excellent, Johnson semiautomatic rifle (later the M1941, in military terminology) in .30-06. They were actually stamped on the receiver: “Johnson Semi-Automatic, Cal. .30, Made by Marlin Firearms, New Haven, Conn.” The Johnson rifle was the primary weapon issued by the CIA to Cuban exiles being trained for the Bay of Pigs invasion, as was very clearly shown on the cover of LIFEmagazine at the time, so the CIA was definitely the principal source for these unusual, military-grade rifles.

Files stated that Nicoletti was on the second floor of the Dal-Tex Building, together with Johnny Roselli, a very-high-level, organized crime leader, who had just flown in from Miami with last-minute orders from the CIA to actually abort the hit on Kennedy. This interesting detail is readily confirmed by CIA pilot William “Tosh” Plumlee (also still alive), who flew Roselli from Miami to Dallas, even though Plumlee had never met Files, and didn’t know his story. But Nicoletti told Roselli that he took his orders onlyfrom Sam Giancana in Chicago, so he allegedly said, “F**k ’em, we go!” At that point, Roselli supposedly offered to assist Nicoletti as a spotter, and to retrieve his expended shell casings.

With Nicoletti shooting from low in the Dal-Tex Building, young James Files was sent down to the railroad yard bedside the Grassy Knoll, with a CIA-issued, prototype, Remington XP-100 Fireball pistol in .222 Remington (one of only 50 prototypes produced in that caliber from 1962 to 1963) inside a custom briefcase. This was essentially a compact, bolt-action rifle with a pistol grip, short barrel, and three-power scope attached, and it was incredibly accurate at short ranges.

This author has personally test-fired the more-powerful, .223 Remington version with a slightly longer barrel, iron sights, and no scope, and I easily hit just one inch right of the center of the bullseye at 50 yards. At 30 to 35 yards, with a scope, you literally cannot miss. Veteran gunsmith John Ritchson of Black Eagle Gun Works said of the original, .222 prototype version that, “It can thread a needle at 150 yards…a perfect choice for an assassination weapon.”

Files was ordered not to shoot unless Nicoletti missed, not to let JFK get past him, and not to hit Jackie Kennedy under any circumstances. “Just do the job, and tell nobody nothing,” Nicoletti concluded. So, Files stated that he positioned himself behind the wooden, stockade fence atop the Grassy Knoll, about eight feet back from the corner.

Interestingly enough, Frame Z475 of the Zapruder film, taken 8.9 seconds after the fatal shot was fired, doesshow the side profile of a man wearing a fedora hat, just as Files claimed that he did that day, with his arm extended forward to the top of the fence, standing precisely where Files said he was standing. This is clear, corroborating evidence.

Now, looking back at the evidence of up to 12 possible shots fired, we can see that Shot #4, hitting Governor Connally by mistake, when JFK was the actual target, was probably fired from the TSBD by either Caifano or Cain. Kennedy still had not sustained a fatal hit by this time, and he was swiftly approaching withing 100 feet of Files, who now assumed that everyone else had missed, and took his one and only shot, later stating that, “I was aiming for his right eye…like looking six feet away through the scope…roughly 30, 35 yards…his head moved forward…Mr. Nicoletti hit him at that point…I know I hit behind the eye…I hit him and blew his head backward.”

This is a very critical point to make, because Files realized in the instant that he pulled the trigger that Nicoletti had just fired within the same fraction of a second, hitting the top of JFK’s head from behind (Shot #5) at Zapruder Frame Z312, and driving it 2.3 inches forward. Thus, when Files’ high-velocity round impacted at Frame Z313 (Shot #6), it struck JFK in the right temple instead of the right eye. Files knewthis because he was the actual shooter. It wasn’t until after his first confession in 1994 that researchers went back, slowed the Zapruder film down for frame-by-frame analysis, and saw that Files was exactly correct, that the chilling credibility of his story began to sink in. In addition, in 1997 and 1998, he passed three separate, Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) tests, registering an 86-percent truth factor.

Immediately after shooting the president, Files claimed that he extracted the .222 shell casing from his weapon, and bit down on it with the right side of his mouth, denting the casing slightly. Feeling cocky and arrogant, he left it on the fence rail as his calling card. Astoundingly enough, in 1987, John C. Rademacher discovered two .222 shell casings in the Grassy Knoll area, and orthodontists identified tooth marks from the right side of a human mouth on one of them. The other casing remains unexplained today.

Modern testing of the .222 Remington cartridge in ballistic gelatin displays approximately 9.3 inches of penetration, and a dramatic, four-inch-wide, temporary wound cavity. This almost exactly matches the catastrophic wound to JFK’s head after Files’ fatal shot at Frame Z313, further corroborating his remarkable story.

Why were there as many as 12 possible shots fired, yet most of them missed, and only three or four were audible? The answers are very simple. Most of the participants who later told their stories talked of carelessly tossing their scoped rifles into the trunks of their cars, unaware of how sensitive rifle scopes are to the slightest bumps, and how easily they are knocked out of alignment. For the most part, they never checked their rifles or re-zeroed them prior to the assassination, with just one notable exception.

Also, in 1963, there was only one manufacturer of “clean,” non-traceable, firearms suppressors, SIONICS, run by Mitchell L. WerBell, III, a former, wartime, OSS (which later became the CIA) operative, known as the “Wizard of Whispering Death,” who produced nearly all of his products exclusively for the CIA. Most of the non-audible shots fired at Dealey Plaza were likely from suppressed, Springfield M1903A4 sniper rifles or suppressed M1 Carbines, both definitely known to have been used by the CIA.

Only one of the actual participants described taking the time to carefully and meticulously sight-in his weapon the day before the assassination, and he was the only man to make a solid, fatal, direct hit on JFK. James Files said that a CIA contract operative “showed up to take me around and show me the exit routes. I also went with him to test-fire the weapons, and aligned the scopes.” According to Files, this CIA operative’s name was Lee Harvey Oswald, but that’s an entirely different story altogether.

This now brings up to the strangest shot of all, the totally-silent, Shot #2 from the front, striking JFK in the throat as an entry wound of 3mm-to-5mm in diameter. The most-logical explanation for this wound is the mysterious “Umbrella Man,” standing on the Elm Street sidewalk a mere 10 to 15 feet from the presidential limousine as it passed by. His black umbrella was open for just 22 seconds, its panels actually turning on the Zapruder film to follow the movement of JFK’s head as he approached.

In 1960, C
harles Senseney of the CIA’s Biological Warfare Section developed an umbrella weapon, which fired a 5mm, M1, black, plastic rocket with a platinum tip, coated in a paralyzing agent called “46-40,” which took effect in 1.5 seconds, paralyzing the victim and rendering him immobile. Only 50 of these black, umbrella weapons were made between 1960 and 1963, for selected individuals engaged in covert operations, and they were almost totally silent. Their existence was confirmed to Congress in 1975.

Researcher Robert Bradley Cutler obtained one of these rocket darts in 1988, and was able to identify the Umbrella Man as Gordon D. Novel, a former CIA operative and electronics expert, who later worked for President Lyndon Johnson on the JFK assassination investigation, and was a good friend of Mitch WerBell from SIONICS. Those were certainly intriguing connections, and Novel himself was later quoted as saying, “What’s the difference between the mafia and the government (CIA) if they’re trying to kill you? None.”

During JFK’s autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland, Commander (Doctor) James J. Humes removed a pointed projectile from the front of the president’s throat, and turned it over to two attending, FBI agents. Special Agents Francis X. O’Neill, Jr., and James W. Sibert both signed an official receipt addressed to Navy “Captain J.H. Stover, Jr., Commanding Officer, U.S. Naval Medical School, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland,” stating that “We hereby acknowledge receipt of a ‘missle’ (misspelled, but obviously meaning ‘missile’) recovered by Commander James J. Humes, MC, USN, on this date (22 November 1963.)” The “missile” (not a “bullet”) subsequently disappeared forever, and was never admitted into evidence, but the signed receipt was still retained.

Whether this type of CIA umbrella weapon was used to immobilize JFK or not, the immediate effects on his body were precisely what the weapon and its paralyzing agent intended, to immobilize the president for several seconds, so he couldn’t turn, move, or duck for cover, and its 5mm-diameter body would certainly leave a puckered, 3mm-to-5mm entry hole, as was observed on JFK’s body. The corroborating fact that a “missile,” and not a “bullet,” was recovered from his throat is extremely incriminating, and indicative that such a weapon, may, in fact, have been used in this very covert operation.

Finally, let’s take a look at what became of Sam Giancana, the organized crime boss whose orders to kill JFK overrode even the CIA’s belated effort to abort the operation. On June 19, 1975, Giancana was at home in Oak Park, Illinois, surrounded by FBI agents and policemen, since he was about to testify before the Church Committee of Congress, which was investigating ties between the CIA and the mafia. He had only two visitors that day, Johnny Roselli, his right-hand man, and notorious, CIA officer William King “Wild Bill” Harvey, who came to coach him on his upcoming testimony.

Giancana was shot in the back of the head while cooking food in his basement kitchen by someone that he obviously knew, and then his dead body was shot six more times around the mouth to send a clear message about the unwritten “code of silence.”

The murder weapon was a CIA-issued, suppressed, High Standard HDM pistol in .22 Long Rifle, traced to a Miami gun store, which was a CIA front operation. James Files later stated that, “The crime family did not have Sam Giancana killed…the government ordered it…a contract killing.” The most-likely suspect was Bill Harvey, who was variously described by his CIA associates as “an alcoholic psycho,” and “a loose cannon.” Harvey himself died the very next year, somewhat suspiciously, due to unspecified “complications from heart surgery,” just before Roselli was very brutally murdered in Miami in July 1976. These men clearly knew too much.

Giancana’s brother wrote a book called Double Cross, filled with notable quotes from his crime-boss sibling. Sam had once told him that, “On November 22, 1963, the U.S.A. had a coup; it’s that simple. The government was overthrown by a handful of guys who did it so well, not one American ever knew it happened.”

Retired Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. “Crow” Crowley, who served as the CIA’s Deputy Director for Intelligence in 1963, and willingly participated in “Operation Zipper” (the Agency had sarcastically referred to JFK as “Jack the Zipper,” due to his hundreds of extramarital affairs), as he said it was called, told author Gregory Douglas in 1997, after learning that he had terminal cancer and was dying, that the JFK assassination and its aftermath coverup were, “An endless circle of betrayal and death, but that’s how the game goes.”

On that not-so-cheerful note, let’s remember that the JFK murder investigation has been extremely lengthy and complex, and we’re certainly not going to solve the entire case here, in one brief article. But, we can, at least, shed some light on the actual weapons used, and the known shooters, in an effort to solve at least one tiny portion of this vast, enduring, and enigmatic puzzle.

Warren Gray is a retired, U.S. Air Force intelligence officer with experience in joint special operations and counterterrorism, a former FBI employee, and a long-time, JFK researcher. He served in Europe and the Middle East, earned Air Force and Navy parachutist wings, and four college degrees, including a Master of Aeronautical Science degree, and was a distinguished graduate of the Air Force Intelligence Operations Specialist Course, and the USAF Combat Targeting School. He is currently a published author and historian. You may visit his web site at: