By: Warren Gray

Copyright © 2023

“The Great Pyramid is a magnificent, architectural marvel…

far beyond our current, technological capabilities… 

Whether it was built by an advanced, ancient civilization,

extraterrestrial gods, or both.”

— David Wilcock, author, lecturer, filmmaker.

“We don’t have the technology to build a pyramid now; we’re not

even close. We don’t move blocks of 300-ton stone. We’re not the

most evolved we’ve ever been.”

— Doctor Carmen Boulter, Egyptian Archetypes

professor, University of Calgary.

“I cannot confirm or deny this, but there is something inside

the (Great) Pyramid that is ‘not of this world.’”

— Doctor Ala Shaheen, head of the Cairo University

Archaeology Department, December 2010.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one still standing. Originally 481 feet tall (now 450 feet or 210 layers), it was supposedly constructed for the Pharoah Khufu (or Cheops in Greek), a cruel tyrant who ruled Egypt from 2589 B.C. until his death in 2566 B.C. Nearby, there are the smaller pyramids of Khafre, his evil son, and Menakure, his more-benevolent grandson, currently rising to 448 feet and 218 feet, respectively.

The Great Pyramid was originally referred to as Akhet-Khufu (“Khufu’s horizon”), measuring 756 feet wide and covering 13.1 acres. It was the tallest man-made structure in the world for 3,800 years until the Lincoln Cathedral in England rose to 520 feet in 1300 A.D. The Great Pyramid weighs 5.9 million tons and contains 2.336 million blocks of dark Tura limestone (93 percent) and Aswan granite (7 percent.) It’s the largest, stone building ever constructed on Earth, the only pyramid in the world with air shafts, and the only pyramid in the world with chambers above ground level.

The three pyramids of Giza were originally covered with very smooth casing stones of highly polished, mirror-finished, bright white limestone (144,000 blocks on the Great Pyramid alone, weighing 15 tons each). Each has an electrum-plated (gold/silver alloy) pyramidion on top. Khafre’s was also coated with a liquid solution of gold and silver flecks, to sparkle in the bright sunlight. These casing stones reflected sunlight like a mirror and made them shine like jewels.

The polished surfaces reflected sunlight, heat, and moonlight, and were visible from over 10 miles away, shining like a precious jewel. Scientists have calculated that the reflected light was so powerful that it was visible from the mountains of Israel (where it was known as Ta Khut, “the Light”) and even from the Moon as a shining star on Earth. Appropriately, the ancient Egyptians called the Great Pyramid Ikhet, meaning “glorious light.”

A severe earthquake in 1300 A.D. loosened many of the outer casings, which were looted by Bahri Sultan al-Hasan in 1356 to build mosques and fortresses in Cairo.  The local people also looted the white casings. Only a few of the original 144,000 casing stones are still present, now rough and dirty with age, on the northern face of the Great Pyramid. They have an average weight of 15 tons each.

The Great Pyramid’s precise workmanship was so exacting that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 2.28 inches in 756 feet. The huge base is horizontal and perfectly flat to within .59 inches over 13.1 acres. This is comparable to modern laser-leveling accuracy! The ratio of perimeter to height equates to 2π (2 x pi, where pi = 3.1416) with an accuracy better than .05 percent, although the ancients could not precisely define the value of π. Some say they had no concept of π.

The mean opening of the joints on the casing stones is only 1/50th of an inch, and the casing stones themselves were cut to within 1/100th of an inch of mathematical perfection, showing extremely high precision. Not even a razor blade could fit between the blocks! The “pyramid inch” (PI) was a unit of measure used by the ancient Egyptians. It was 1/25th of a “sacred cubit” (25.065 in.), so it equaled 1.00106 inches. The base of the Great Pyramid measures 9,131 PI at the mean socket level, or 365.24 sacred cubits – the exact number of days in one year!

Furthermore, the angles of the Great Pyramid are equal to the angles formed by the radii of the Earth and Moon as the apex and the equatorial diameter of the Earth as a base. Other technical details in the Great Pyramid’s measurements include the Earth’s exact size, the distance from Earth to the Sun, star alignments, and the precession of the equinoxes. It’s mind-boggling! The Pyramids of Giza sit at the exact center of the land mass of the Earth, where the precise latitude and longitude that that cross the most land mass intersect. The statistical likelihood of finding this perfect location by accident is one in three billion.

The height of the 35th course of stone blocks at the floor of the mysterious “Queens’s chamber” is 1,162.6 pyramid inches. This is also the exact diameter of the outer edge of Stonehenge. Is there some connection between the two mysterious sites?

Astonishingly enough, the Great Pyramid is the most accurately aligned structure on Earth. The sides of its square base are aligned with the four cardinal compass points to within 1/15th of one degree, and the finished base was squared to within 1/300th of one degree. This is only a time-induced error, because the North Pole has shifted over the millennia. The Great Pyramid was precisely perfect when first built.

Each of the four corners was anchored with a ball and socket at the base embedded into solid bedrock to prevent shifting due to expansion or during earthquakes. This was discovered in 1799 and again in 1837 by British Colonel Howard Vyse. The higher corner stones used similar, mortise-and-tenon anchors to prevent shifting.

The Great Pyramid actually has a very slight, concave curvature of about 37 inches on each side. No other pyramid exhibits this intentional curvature. The overall effect is that of an eight-sided pyramid. It is readily visible only from the air at dawn and sunset on the spring and autumnal equinoxes when the sun casts shadows on the pyramid. This curvature was purely structural, not cosmetic. It was not present in the outer casing stones. The curvature designed into the faces of the Great Pyramid exactly matches the radius of the curvature of the Earth.

The mortar used on the Great Pyramid is of an unknown origin. It has been analyzed, and its chemical composition is known, but it can’t be reproduced. It is stronger than the actual stones, stronger than any modern mortar, and still holding up today.  Five hundred thousand tons were used in the Great Pyramid alone. The mortar consists of gypsum, sand, pulverized limestone, and water. It is 92.83 percent hydrated sulfate of lime, 4.63 percent carbonate of lime, and very small amounts of carbonate of magnesia, alumina, iron oxide, silica, and water.

The exterior of the Great Pyramid has 203 steps or layers, at a very steep 51.5-degree angle. It is currently illegal and very dangerous to climb to the summit, but many visitors do it anyway. The Great Pyramid was built with a swiveling front door at the main entrance. Only Khufu’s father, Sneferu, and grandfather, Huni, also used swiveling doors on their pyramids. Khufu’s door weighed 20 tons and was so well-balanced that it could be opened by pushing out from the inside with very light force. But, when it was closed, it fit so tightly that it could barely be detected from the outside, and there was nothing to grasp to pull it open. The crack was too tight for prying tools. This swiveling door disappeared during the first century A.D.

In 832 A.D., the caliph Abdullah al-Mamoun led some Arabs searching for a secret entrance into the Great Pyramid, but they could not find one. So, they tunneled into the solid limestone bedrock for 89 to 100 feet, hoping to find a secret passage. The sound of collapsing rocks made them turn slightly left, and they eventually broke into the Descending Passage of the pyramid. They found no treasure and no royal bodies. The tomb-shaped coffer allegedly contained a stone statue with a sword, breastplate of gold with precious gems, and a large ruby on the head, which gave off light. The statue was inscribed with a strange writing, which no one could translate.

The interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature of the Earth, 68 degrees Fahrenheit. It’s the only pyramid in the world with ascending and descending passageways. The descending passage pointed directly to the pole star Alpha Draconis from about 2170 to 2144 B.C. This was the North Star at that time. No other star has aligned with the passage since then. The passageway is nearly perfectly straight to within .013 inch for 345 feet. Both passageways are only 3.1 feet tall by 3.4 feet wide, ascending or descending at a 26.5 degree angle.

The Great Pyramid has three main chambers – referred to as the King’s Chamber, Queen’s Chamber, and Underground Chamber – in the mistaken belief that these were burial chambers. In actual fact, no mummy was ever found in any pyramid in Egypt, pharaoh’s wives were never buried in the same tomb structure as their husbands, and certainly never in a pyramid. Khufu’s wife was actually ordered to be cremated, so she was never supposed to be buried in the Great Pyramid.

Unlike King Tut’s spectacular tomb in the Valley of the Kings (this author has been there), no Egyptian tomb inscriptions of any kind were ever found in any of the pyramids of Giza, nor were any memorials or tributes to any dead king. The interior of all three pyramids is quite plain, even sterile and coldly industrial, with no markings at all. The Great Pyramid’s coffer in the King’s Chamber is cut from a rough block of solid limestone with no inscriptions whatsoever, hardly fitting for an exalted king’s tomb.

The most significant problem with the burial theory comes down to simple mathematics. The Great Pyramid was supposedly built over a period of 23 years, during Khufu’s rule. 23 years equals exactly 12.088 million minutes. The pyramid contains 2.336 million blocks of limestone and granite, weighing a total of 5.9 million tons, so the average block weighs 2.526 tons or 5,052 pounds. None of these blocks were pre-cut or pre-stacked in advance.

So, in order to build the Great Pyramid in just 23 years using one huge, single-file ramp, one block had to be hand-quarried in Tula (12 miles way) or Aswan (580 miles away) by men with crude copper tools, transported by hand or boat, hauled up the long ramp, and expertly laid in-place within 1/5th of one degree of True North every five minutes and 15 seconds (including the virtually impossible, 580-mile trip, which normally consumed three to five days by itself) without fail. There could be no breaks ever for 23 consecutive years, regardless of feast, famine, rain, mistakes, accidents, darkness, deaths, plagues, sandstorms, floods, wars, pestilence, etc. We cannot do this even today with the most modern of machinery!

The standard claim since Herodotus visited in 450 B.C. is that the Great Pyramid was built in 20-plus years by 400,000 men in three-month shifts of 100,000 at a time, and all visual depictions show only a single ramp. One researcher noted that, “Actually, the effort to build this gigantic ramp would have greater than the construction of the pyramids. The debris from the Great Pyramid alone would have been nearly 300 million tons. But where is the debris? This enormous quantity can’t be hidden in the desert.

“Historians…want us to believe that the massive, stone blocks were carried to the construction site on massive, rolling logs. The only trees available in Ancient Egypt were the date palms. But these were the primary food source. It is very improbable that the Egyptians would have cut their main food source for this purpose. At least 25 million logs would have been needed, which is way above the entire, Egyptian import industry of any kind, in their entire history. The roads were made of stone, which would have made this task impossible! But, even if the Egyptians would have tried this, the massive stone blocks would have crushed the logs.”

In addition, the King’s Chamber and Queen’s Chamber both contain air shafts, which are never used in burial chambers, because air contributes to the decomposition of any dead body. Interestingly, the shafts in the King’s Chamber are extremely precise in measurement, accurate to within one-half millimeter in any direction. They are each about eight inches in diameter, extending 200 feet to the north and south.

The northern shaft aligns perfectly with the star Alpha Draconis (Thuban) in the constellation Draco. Thousands of years ago, Thuban (not Polaris) was the North Star, the one constant in the night sky. The southern shaft now aligns perfectly with Orion’s Belt, but originally aligned with the planet Alnitak (literally “the belt” in Arabic), the first and brightest star in Orion’s Belt. When the shafts were cleaned of dirt and debris in 1837 and permanently reopened, cool air immediately rushed into the chamber, which remains at a constant 68 degrees Fahrenheit, no matter what the outside temperature is.

The King’s Chamber is 34.4 feet long by 17.17 feet wide with a flat roof 19.6 feet tall. It is faced entirely with 100 blocks of red granite. Many people have reported strange phenomena in this room. The only object in the room is the rectangular coffer made of a single block of rough red granite and broken on one corner. It is too large (6.5 ft. long by 2.25 ft. wide by 3 ft. deep) to fit through the ascending passage, so it must have been installed there during construction.

Its granite is harder than the walls, and its purpose is unknown. It is not necessarily a coffin or sarcophagus. It has grooves for a lid but no lid. There is absolutely no evidence that this was ever a tomb, and a wrapped mummy with a burial mask and carved coffin will not fit inside. It’s too short. The coffer, this single block of hollowed-out, rough, Aswan granite would have required bronze saws eight-to-nine feet long set with teeth of sapphires. Hollowing out the interior would require tubular bronze drills applied with tremendous vertical force. In 1715, Pere Claude Sicard, a Roman Catholic priest, visited the pyramids and described an unusual feature of the coffer: “It was formed out of a single block of granite, had no cover, and when struck, sounded like a bell.”

Napoleon Bonaparte fought a battle at the pyramids in late July 1798 and later entered the King’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid alone. When he emerged, he was visibly shaken, and an aide asked him if he had seen anything mysterious. Napoleon replied that he had no comment and never wanted the incident mentioned again. Years later, when he was on his deathbed, a close friend asked him what really happened in the King’s Chamber. He was about to tell him but stopped. Then, he shook his head and said, “No, what’s the use. You’d never believe me.” He never told anyone and took the secret to his grave. There is an unsubstantiated story that Napoleon had hinted that he was given some vision of his destiny during his stay in the King’s Chamber.

There is also an unusual Grand Gallery chamber, the purpose of which remains unknown, leading up to the King’s Chamber. This Grand Gallery is uncharacteristically 28 feet tall by seven feet wide and 153 feet long.

The entire Giza Plateau sits upon a base of solid chalk limestone full of underground water channels only five miles from the nearby Nile River. The very similar chalk aquifer of the Wiltshire basin in England and neighboring Oxfordshire acts as one of the world’s best conductors of electricity, and megalithic sites like Stonehenge show detectable rises in electromagnetic radiation. Both limestone and granite have electrical qualities. Granite is slightly radioactive and has the ability to ionize or electrify the air. It releases radon gas, which has a radioactive charge. The Pyramids of Giza are built almost entirely of 15 million tons of high-quartzite limestone (dolomite) and granite with small amounts of metal, both of which greatly enhance electrical conductivity.

The rising and falling of the Nile at Giza each year produces a constant flow of water through layers of limestone, which generates an electrical charge, which in turn produces an electric current known as physio-electricity. This generates a magnetic field. The pyramid’s underground chambers are granite conductors built within the rock, charged with physio-electricity. This current is conducted directly to the upper part of the pyramid’s granite-covered, subterranean chambers. Granite is a very good conductor of electricity and permits the ionization of charged air particles.

Sir William Siemens, a German-born engineer, climbed to the top of the Great Pyramid in 1847. An Arab guide with him raised his hand with fingers outspread, and an acute singing note was heard, stopping the moment that he let his hand fall: “As soon as I raised one of my fingers above my head, I felt a prickling in the fingers. That this could only be caused by an electrical phenomenon was proved by the slight electric shock felt on trying to drink out of a wine bottle. So, I wrapped a full bottle of wine that I had with me in a damp paper, and thus converted into a Leyden bottle, which was soon strongly charged with electricity by…holding it high above my head.

“The sheikh caught hold of my left hand…I felt a violent shock run through the bottle to my own arm, and was certain that the sheikh must have received the equivalent….he fell speechless on the stones, and…he rose suddenly with a loud cry and sprang down the gigantic steps of the pyramid with long strides. The Arabs…followed their leader, leaving us complete masters of the pyramid.” Siemens and his brother, Werner, were the co-founders of today’s multinational German engineering and electronics conglomerate Siemens AG, headquartered in Munich and Berlin.

The outer casing of white limestone on the pyramids contains no magnesium and has high insulating properties, using exactly the same principle as an insulted electrical cable today. The electromagnetic field that formed at the bottom of the pyramid was transmitted in concentrated form to the upper layers. On the top of the pyramid was a gold/electrum capstone, an excellent conductor of electricity.

This golden capstone facilitated a conductive path for the transfer of negative ions into the ionosphere, generating a very strong electrical current. This shows absolutely flawless engineering with an understanding of electrical concepts even beyond our own. According to John Burke, a biological engineer at the University of Boston, “In a place where one area of ground which has a good ability to conduct electricity meets another area which has a lesser ability to conduct these currents, it creates a charge called conductivity discontinuity.

“Also…wherever you get a change in magnetic field occurring, it generates electricity. It’s a basic/universal physics principle called induction. In the Egyptian desert…sacred sites were chosen carefully, and precisely where pyramids were constructed…they understood much more about this stuff than we do…they were using it for their engineering.”

Whether there is an extraterrestrial connection or not, the undeniable fact remains that there are far more UFO sightings at the Pyramids of Giza than anywhere else on Earth. In approximately 1470 B.C., Pharoah Thutmose III observed, “A circle of fire coming in the sky, noiseless, one rod (16.5 feet) long with its body, and one rod wide. After some days, these things became more numerous, shining more than the brightness of the sun.” In modern times, the PyramidCam mounted atop the Siag Pyramids Hotel, only 1.16 miles from the top of the Great Pyramid, takes a digital photograph every 30 seconds, and it has captured some astounding and unexplained images over the years.

PyramidCam photo of strange, airborne object, April 20, 2009.

Very clear, distinctive, silvery UFOs were photographed in March and November 2006, January and March 2007, September 2008, and April and November 2009 in both daylight and darkness. Separate tourist photos show obvious UFOs in April 2004, July 2005, June 2010, July 2013, 2014, March and April 2016, 2018, March 2019, and July 2020. One particularly stunning photo taken in July 2013 very plainly shows a black triangular craft with rounded edges and three belly lights very close to the Great Pyramid. Indeed, the city of Cairo’s official name is al-Qāhirah, which means: “Place (or City) of Mars.”

This is where the Orion Correlation Theory comes into play. First advanced by Robert Bauval in 1983 and published in 1989, this theory claims that the relative positions of the pyramids of Giza correlate with the three stars in Orion’s Belt, as they appeared in about 10,000 B.C., so the pyramids are actually much older than previously believed. The three main Pyramids of Giza precisely match Orion’s Belt in pattern, distance, and size, mirroring the relative positions of the stars Alnitak, Alilam, and Mintaka. The first two stars and pyramids are nearly equal in size and brilliance, while the third is only 53 percent the size of the other two. In addition, the southern air shaft in the King’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid points directly toward Orion’s Belt today, but was originally aimed precisely at Alnitak, the first star in the belt, represented on Earth by the Great Pyramid itself!

The Orion Correlation Theory suggests that the pyramids and Great Sphinx may have been built as long ago as 10,500 B.C. in alignment with Orion’s Belt and Leo the Lion, when Leo rose directly east of the Sphinx at the vernal equinox. Geologist Robert M. Schoch argues that water erosion on the Sphinx dates it closer to 5,000 to 7,000 B.C., and his findings are corroborated by geologist David Coxhill. Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, unearthed ancient writing in 1857, which told how Khufu came upon the Sphinx, already buried in the sand.

One noteworthy theory about the true purpose of the Pyramids was advanced in 1998 by British manufacturing engineer (with 50 years’ experience) Christopher Dunn in his book, The Giza Powerplant. Telluric energy is a natural consequence of certain combinations of geology and water flow. It’s highly probable that similar sonic and electrical qualities were harnessed by the original builders’ deliberate siting of the pyramids. The Giza plateau is particularly noted for resonance and its dramatic ability to capture solar fluctuations. It’s no coincidence that those three quartzite pyramids were built on their limestone plateau.

In fact, the Great Pyramid alone currently generates the same electromagnetic measurement as that made during a severe thunderstorm with lightning, and it already has a powerful electromagnetic field around it, as Sir William Siemens discovered in 1847. With the simple addition of some type of superconductor in the King’s Chamber at the core, it could potentially power all of Egypt!

The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, a very similar structure, emits a constant energy beam 30 feet in diameter with a frequency of 28 Hertz. The beam becomes stronger as it moves up and away from the pyramid, defying all known laws of physics and technology. It has an underground labyrinth with chambers and small lake, where the ionization level is 43 times higher than the outdoor average in that location, creating “healing rooms.”

Since 2012, there have been amazing and alarming discoveries made in the field of geopolymer science related to the Pyramids of Giza. Phillip Coppens wrote in his 2012 book The Ancient Alien Question that, “French scholar Joseph Davidovits…is internationally known and respected as the father of the new science of geopolymers. Geopolymerization is a chemical process through which artificial stone can be created that is almost indistinguishable from natural rock…a revolution in the building industry. Applying this new science to old discoveries, Davidovits has identified the blocks of the Great Pyramid as geopolymers, not natural rock, a conclusion he has reached through both chemical and observational analyses.

“The next question to be asked is how the builders of the Great Pyramid were familiar with a chemical science that was only rediscovered in the late 20th century. That is exactly the question Egyptologists do not want to hear asked, for it is automatically followed by the Ancient Alien Question.”

The Pyramids of Giza are re-agglomerated, geopolymer, limestone blocks. A limestone casing from Great Pyramid shows organic fibers and air bubbles, which do not exist in natural limestone, and there are jumbled fossil shells in a Great Pyramid limestone block. Natural limestone would have fossil sedimentation in horizontal layers, so this is a mixed aggregate.

According to the U.S. Marble web site in 2016, “Cultured Marble and Granite are man-made products composed of approximately 82 percent natural stone materials suspended in polymer resins, which can be poured and molded into virtually any product you can dream up…(with) the benefit of being much easier to maintain than natural stone marble or granite, and as a result of being poured/molded products, are more versatile than natural stone in terms of sheer number of options and product applications possible.”

According to Egyptologists, there were 100,000 to 400,000 people building the Pyramids at any given time. If ancient Egyptians really chiseled the Pyramid stones, why are there no chisel marks on any of them, and why has no chisel ever been discovered on the Giza Plateau? Nobody dropped a chisel?!

If ancient Egyptians really built the Pyramids with geopolymer blocks, it’s a very caustic, toxic process involving acids and alkali salts with an estimated 30 percent fatality rate for just one exposure. Thus, there should be approximately 30,000 to 133,000 bodies present for each time the geopolymer was mixed in large batches. Yet there are only 630 skeletons unearthed to date. Where are all of the other bodies? And if the ancient Egyptians didn’t build the Pyramids, who did?

Professor Michel Barsoum of Drexel University is an expert in ceramics who was told about Davidovits’ findings. Using an electron microscope, he and other researchers determined that Pyramid limestone was indeed reconstituted aggregate material with a high water content and amorphous (not crystallized) chemical structure.

The molecular structure of these blocks does not exist anywhere in nature, and natural limestone is not like this at all.  “Therefore, it’s very improbable that the outer and inner casing stones…were chiseled from a natural, limestone block,” Barsoum wrote. “It is ironic, sublime, and truly humbling that this 4,500-year-old limestone (aggregate) is so true to the original (stone) that it has misled generations of Egyptologists and geologists.”

The ancient Egyptians kept very meticulous, historical records of every single king, every war, every major celebration, famine, and other significant events – good and bad – for 3,000 years, including the construction of other pyramids, But, there is not one single mention in their recorded history of Egyptians actually building the Pyramids of Giza, arguably the most important construction in Earth’s history. Most historians simply assumed that they were built as tombs for Khufu, Khafre, and Menakure because those were the three kings responsible for most of the visible work activity on the Giza Plateau.

The cold, hard, indisputable facts are that there is still no documentation or proof that the pyramids and Sphinx were ever built by Egyptians, much less that they were built by Khufu, Khafre, and Menakure. Likewise, there is no documentation or proof that Khafre built the Great Sphinx, that they were built from 2589 B.C. to 2472 B.C., or that they were ever designed or intended as burial chambers. There is no documentation or proof that any ramps were used during construction. In fact, there are no drawings, plans, blueprints, or pyramid designs anywhere! In short, we really don’t know for certain, even today, in the 21st century, who built the Pyramids and Sphinx, or when, why, or how they were built!

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Author (in red shirt) and son at the Pyramids, 1995.

Warren Gray is a retired, U.S. Air Force intelligence officer with experience in joint special operations and counterterrorism. He served in Europe and the Middle East (and traveled to Egypt and the Pyramids), earned Air Force and Navy parachutist wings, four college degrees, and was a distinguished graduate of the Air Force Intelligence Operations Specialist Course, and the USAF Combat Targeting School. He is currently a published author and historian (also investigating historical mysteries.) You may visit his web site at: